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What's the difference between bad acting, bad directing, and bad dialogue/writing?

Bad acting leads to characters where you just cant see past the actor themselves. If an actor is good/great, even with bad writing or directing, you can still be drawn into the character and no longer see the actor that plays them. Even with good directing and writing, they just do not have the ability to get you immersed into their character enough to not seem them as the actor. Sometimes the actor themselves are not even bad, they could just have been miscast into a role that they are not really great at playing. Nicholas Cage is the actor I immediately think of that falls into that category. He is not objectively a bad actor when he is cast right, but there are so many movies where he is just cast in a role that he cannot pull off.

Bad directing can take otherwise good material but systematically make a movie that just does not flow well. The actors can be great, the writing can be great, but the movies pacing can be off and just make the movie incoherent. Directors can also be miscast. Guy Ritchie for instance is (in my opinion) a great director for the genre of films he generally directs, however his style just didn't work well with a movie like King Arthur. Granted, that movie had other problems, but his directing style didn't really help it any.

Bad writing typically leads to movies where the story doesn't make sense. Its hard to tell where this happens, because you generally have writers who specialize in certain things. You generally have writers who write larger stories, then you have writers who drive plot. Its over simplified, but that seems to be how it usually goes. Game of Thrones suffered a fate where in general, the show had really pushed for a larger story but also paced the driving of the plot, but in the last season, they switched gears to just driving plot with no real balance so at lot of stuff happened in a short period of time and it didn't make any sense.

Bad acting is when a performer lacks the skill to give the kind of performance desired from them. Bad directing is when a filmmaker lacks focus and is unable to properly communicate with their cast, which can easily mislead even the best actors.