I think you have too narrow a view of what philosophy is. One of the main tools in philosophy is logic, they are not alternatives.
The answer in the film, about 'judging peoples worth' instead of 'humans having an intrinsic value', is probably the worst answer to 'the trolley problem'. it was that philosophy that allowed Mother to 'wipe the slate clean and start again'.
More importantly, Mother's framing of the trolley problem was deliberately designed to encourage Daughter to view herself as "more worthy" by putting Daughter in the role of the sacrifice as well as decider.
And since Mother still has an army at her disposal, humanity will always be under judgment going forward.
But at least no one can complain about undereducated youth any longer.